UD Toilets and Composting Toilets in Emergency Settings
The approach of Ecological Sanitation (Ecosan) in emergency settings breaks with conventional excreta disposal options such as pit latrines or pour-flush toilets. Traditionally, Ecosan systems re-use both faeces and urine, turning them into either a soil conditioner or a fertilizer. This not only benefits peoples’ health through safe excreta disposal and by reducing environmental contamination, but also implies re-using the by-products for some form of agricultural activity. This Technical Brief looks at the criteria for selecting Urine Diversion (UD) and Composting Toilets options in an emergency setting, including the construction, operation and maintenance of such units.