Faecal Sludge Management for Disaster Relief: Technology Comparison Study

Publication date

04 Feb 2020


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This report presents the findings of a study conducted by Arup on behalf of Oxfam to assess different faecal sludge management (FSM) methods at the Rohingya camps close to Cox's Bazar (CXB), Bangladesh. The aim of the study was to draw conclusions on best practices in FSM for disaster relief from evidence gathered through practical experience. 

The researchers visited over 20 operational FSM sites in CXB. These sites had been built by eight different NGOs and were using eight different FSM technologies. The researchers compared the technologies against a set of indicators, including cost; footprint area; speed of construction and commissioning; operation and maintenance issues; pathogen inactivation and resilience to natural disasters. 

A key finding from the study was that adequate allowances and resources should be allocated for the full faecal sludge treatment process. This must include liquid and solids management and final disposal.