Almost 250 million people around the world are affected by climate-related disasters in a typical year. New research for this report projects that, by 2015, this number could grow by 50 per cent to an average of more than 375 million people - as climate change and environmental mismanagement create a proliferation of droughts, floods, and other disasters. The predicted scale of humanitarian need by 2015 could completely overwhelm current capacity to respond to emergencies - unless the world acknowledges and responds to the growing threat. Even in daunting economic times, the world can afford to meet future humanitarian needs and fulfil the right to survive of vulnerable people. The skills and resources exist to mitigate the threats from climate-related catastrophic events. Some countries - rich and poor - have already demonstrated the political will to do just that. This report shows that the humanitarian challenge of the twenty-first century demands a step-change in the quantity and nature of humanitarian response. Whether or not there is sufficient will to do this will be one of the defining features of our age - and will dictate whether millions live or die.