Conflict-affected states require security and development, which are deeply interlinked. Security sector reform (SSR) is one element in building that security. It not only involves reforming security forces, but building up civilian institutions to oversee their work and uphold justice. Security forces must be accountable to civilian authorities and the wider civilian population. Effective SSR should involve civil society organizations, women’s groups and communities themselves in defining their security needs, how SSR can help meet them, and holding security forces to account.