New Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) research suggests that effective donor programming on gender in fragile contexts requires doing more and doing things differently. A critical step is to close financing gaps in key sectors through both dedicated funding and gender mainstreaming. Donors can also do more to improve quality of programming, notably through supporting women as active agents in reducing conflict and fragility; paying more attention to transforming root causes of inequality and fragility, such as gender norms and relations; adopting more politically smart and adaptive approaches; and strengthening donor co-ordination on gender. Donors should ask not only how fragility shapes or impacts on gender inequality, but also how gender ideologies and practices can contribute to fuelling fragility. Top-level leadership, matched by dedicated expertise and robust accountability systems, was found to be key in improving how gender is integrated into donor programmes in fragile and conflict affected contexts.