Following on from the Up in Smoke? report, this booklet uses pictures, graphics, and case studies to detail the impact that climate change is already having on Africa and the threat this poses to human development. This Report finds that concerns about the effects of climate change on rural African societies are more than justified. Climate change is happening, and it is affecting livelihoods that depend on the natural environment, which, in Africa, means nearly everyone. However, even without adequate support, far from being passive victims, people recognise even small changes in climate, and are taking steps to respond to them.